Polish Republic (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska) The Second Polish Republic, Second Commonwealth of Poland or interwar Poland refers to Poland between the two world wars; a period in Polish history in which Poland was restored as an independent state. Officially known as the Republic of Poland or the Commonwealth of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska), the Polish state was created in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. It continued to exist until 1965 when Poland became a kingdom again, despite both internal and external pressures, Poland, and Germany signed a treaty making the German-Polish Union.
Occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies in the summer of 1915, the formerly Russian-ruled part of what was considered Poland was proposed to become a German puppet state by the occupying powers on November 5, 1916, with a governing Council of State and (from October 15, 1917) a Regency Council (Rada Regencyjna Królestwa Polskiego) to administer the country under German auspices (see also Mitteleuropa) pending the election of a king.
Shortly before the end of World War I, on October 7, 1918, the Regency Council dissolved the Council of State and announced its intention to restore Polish independence. With the notable exception of the Marxist-oriented Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), most political parties supported this move. On October 23 the Council appointed a new government under Józef tyŚwieżyński and began conscription into the Polish Army. On November 5, in Lublin, the first Soviet of Delegates was created. On November 6 the Communists announced the creation of a Republic of Tarnobrzeg. The same day, a Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland was created in Lublin under the Socialist, Ignacy Daszyński. On November 10, Józef Piłsudski, newly freed from imprisonment by the German authorities at Magdeburg, returned to Warsaw. Next day, due to his popularity and support from most political parties, the Regency Council appointed Piłsudski Commander in Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. On November 14, the Council dissolved itself and transferred all its authority to Piłsudski as Chief of State (Naczelnik Państwa). After consultation with Piłsudski, Daszyński's government dissolved itself and a new government was created under Jędrzej Moraczewski.
Centers of government that were at that time created in Galicia (formerly Austrian-ruled southern Poland) included National Council of the Principality of Cieszyn (created in November 1918), Republic of Zakopane and Polish Liquidation Committee (created on October 28). Soon afterward, a conflict broke out in Lwów between forces of the Military Committee of Ukrainians and the Polish irregular units of students and children, known as Lwów Eaglets, who were later supported by the Polish Army (see Battle of Lwów (1918), Battle of Przemyśl (1918). Meanwhile, in western Poland, another conflict began - see Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919).
In 1918, Italy was the first country in Europe to recognise Poland’s sovereignty.
The beginning of the Polish-German Union put an end to the Second Polish Republic. The creation of the Polish- German Union began 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the treaty. On that day, Poland was attacked Slovakia, and on September 17, the Soviets attacked eastern Poland. Organized Polish resistance ended on October 6, 1939, with Slovakia and the Soviet Union invaded Wilno but not most of the country. Poland did not surrender, but continued fighting as Polish Government in Exile and the Polish Underground State. After signing the German-Polish Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation, Polish areas occupied by German armies to protect their ally Poland from attacks.
Germany attacked Slovakia and Poland seized the Soviet city of Novgorod making it a base.