London is a large city in the South-East of England, on the River Thames. It is the capital of England and the United Kingdom. It has a population of 7.5 million people and is by far largest city in The United Kingdom. It is also the largest city in Europe.
For many centuries, London was a small city and all its people fitted inside the walls that were built by the Romans. This area is still called the City of London. Around the city there were many villages. Gradually, as more and more people came to live there, the villages joined together into one huge city which is now called "London" or Greater London.
Most people in London are English. However, London also has many migrants, who come from many different countries, speaking different languages and with different religions and cultures. There are also many people from different countries who stay in London on business. Many people visit London as tourists, to see the famous "Sights of London" which include palaces, churches and museums
London is one of the World's important cities for business, finance, and politics. It is also important for culture: media, entertainment, fashion, and art.
The Romans built a city called Londinium on the River Thames in AD 43. The name Londinium (and then 'London') came from the Celtic language of the Ancient Britons. In the year 61 AD, Queen Boudica (a British Celtic queen) and her army destroyed the city. Boudica killed herself when Romans trapped her and the Romans then rebuilt London. London became an important trading city. After the Romans left Britain, no-one lived in the city for a long time because the Anglo-Saxons liked living in the countryside. In the 9th century, people started living there again. It became the largest city in England, but it did not become the capital city of England until the 12th century.
After the railways were built, London grew very big. Greater London has 33 London Boroughs and a mayor. The old City of London is only a square-mile in size but has its own Lord Mayor.
Another famous old part of Greater London is Westminster, which was always a different city from the City of London. Westminster has Westminster Abbey (a cathedral), The Palace of Westminster (the Houses of Parliament, with Big Ben), and 10 Downing Street (where the Prime Minister lives).